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Neuroimaging

 

For all the challenges faced by preterm babies, limited research explores how birth early in the third trimester can affect hearing and understanding speech. A team of researchers, using MRI, found children born prematurely were more likely to face speech and language problems by the age of 2.

Researchers from the Chinese University of Hong Kong and Ann & Robert H. Lurie Children's Hospital of Chicago have two types of technology to predict how well a deaf child can learn language after receiving cochlear implant surgery. 

Head trauma and sports—most notably football but also hockey, soccer and boxing—have been the focus of plenty of media coverage. Recent studies have shown an overwhelming majority of deceased football player’s brains contained evidence of chronic traumatic encephalopathy, or CTE.

A team of Italian researchers used resting-state fMRI to examine functional connectivity abnormalities in the brain in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). They wanted to see how abnormalities in cerebellar dentate nuclei (DNs) affect an individual’s balance, posture and muscle tone.

New research from a Spanish team of researchers used MRI to explore whether subclinical obsessive-compulsive symptoms in children could be related to the brain’s structure.

 

Recent Headlines

One or the other: Inverse relationship between AD and cancer

A population-based study of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and cancer among older adults in Northern Italy has found that the two diseases have an inverse relationship, with AD dementia patients exhibiting a lower risk of cancer and vice versa, according to a study published July 10 online in Neurology.

The brain: Use it or lose it

The cognitive reserve hypothesis, which suggests brain-stimulating activities may stall late-life cognitive decline, received a boost via research published online July 3 in Neurology. The researchers reported more frequent cognitive activity at any age is associated with slower cognitive decline later in life independent of neuropathologic conditions.

TBI patients 30% more likely to suffer ischemic stroke

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) has been associated with subsequent ischemic stroke, a finding that could spur stroke prevention efforts in young trauma patients, according to a study published online June 26 in Neurology.

MRI markers may offer clinical trial endpoint for MS

A meta-analysis demonstrated a link between treatment effects detected in MRI lesions and clinical relapse, suggesting the markers can be leveraged as a primary endpoint in future clinical trials of treatments for multiple sclerosis (MS) in specific situations, according to a study published online June 3 in Lancet Neurology.

mTBI brain abnormalities mirror Alzheimer dementia

Utilizing diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), researchers have correlated post-concussion symptoms with abnormalities in the posterior gray matter-white matter junction, most prominently in the auditory cortex, according to a study published online June 18 in Radiology.

DTI offers ‘road map’ to diagnosing movement disorders

Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) separated patients based on movement disorder diagnosis with a high degree of accuracy, potentially opening the door for early assessment of movement disorders such as Parkinson’s disease (PD), according to a study to be published in the July issue of Movement Disorders.

MRI offers potential of imaging-based diagnosis of bipolar disorder

Structural MRI may be effective at diagnosing mental illnesses such as bipolar disorder by applying a pattern recognition algorithm to anatomic data, according to a study published online June 4 in Psychological Medicine.

MRI highlights link between breastfeeding + cognitive performance measures

MR exams of infants and toddlers uncovered positive relationships between breastfeeding and white matter development. The exams also revealed a link between breastfeeding and development in brain regions associated with improvement in cognitive and behavioral performance measures, according to a study published online May 28 in NeuroImage.

Grim toll: TBI ups risk of suicide in military personnel

Suicide is a major concern among military personnel, particularly since the start of combat in Afghanistan and Iraq. While depression plays a role, suicide risk is higher among deployed military personnel who’ve sustained more traumatic brain injuries (TBIs), even after controlling for clinical symptom severity, according to study published online May 15 in JAMA Psychiatry.

Survey: High school football players show little concern for concussions

Despite growing knowledge about the harms of concussions, a survey of high school football players has revealed that most would ignore warning signs and return to play, according to a study to be presented May 6 at the Pediatric Academic Societies annual meeting in Washington, D.C.

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